###Chapter IV b ####History of the Revival in the Presbyterian Church Such in few words was the state of religion in England, Scot­land and America, when it pleased God, contemporaneously in these several countries, remarkably to revive his work. The earli­est manifestation of the presence of the Holy Spirit, in our por­tion of the church, during this period, was at Freehold, N. J., under the ministry of the Rev. John Tennent, who was called to that congregation in 1730, and died in 1732. “The settling of that place,” says his brother, the Rev. Win. Tennent, “with a gos­pel ministry, was owing under God, to the agency of some Scotch people, that came to it; among whom there was none so painstak­ing in this blessed work as one Walter Ker, who, in 1685, for his faithful and conscientious adherence to God and his truth as pro­fessed by the church of Scotland, was there apprehended and sent to this country, under a sentence of perpetual banishment. By which it appears that the devil and his instruments lost their aim in sending him from home, where it is unlikely he could ever have been so serviceable to Christ’s kingdom as he has been here. He is yet (1744) alive ; and, blessed be God, flourishing in his old age, being in his 88th year.” The state of religion for a time in this congregation was very low. The labours of Mr. J. Tennent, however, were, greatly blessed. The place of public worship was generally crowded with people, who seemed to hear as for their lives. Religion became the general subject of discourse ; though all did not approve of the power of it. The Holy Scriptures were searched by people on both sides of the question ; and knowledge surprisingly increased. The terror of God fell generally on the inhabitants of the place, so that wickedness, as ashamed, in a great measure hid its head. Mr. William Tennent, who succeeded his brother in 1733 as pas­tor of that church, says the effects of the labours of his predeces­sor were more discernible a few months after his death, than during his life. The religious excitement thus commenced continued, with various alternations, until 1744, the date of this account. As to the number of converts, Mr. T. says, “I cannot tell; my comfort is, that the Lord will reckon them, for he knows who are his.” Those who were brought to the Saviour, “were all prepared for it by a sharp law‑work of conviction, in discovering to them, in a heart‑affecting manner, their sinfulness both by nature and practice, as well as their liableness to damnation for their original and actual transgressions. Neither could they see any way in themselves by which they could escape the divine vengeance. For their whole past lives were not only a continued act of rebellion against God, but their present endeavours to better their state, such as prayers and the like, were so imperfect, that they could not endure them, and much less, they concluded, would a holy God. They all con­fessed the justice of God in their eternal perdition; and thus were shut up to the blessed necessity of seeking relief by faith in Christ alone.” The sorrows of the convinced were not alike in all, either in de­gree or continuance. Some did not think it possible for them to be saved, but these thoughts did not continue long. Others thought it possible, but not very probable on account of their vileness. The greatest degree of hope which any had under a conviction which issued well, was a may‑be: Peradventure, said the sinner, God will have mercy on me. The conviction of some was instantaneous, by the Holy Spirit applying the law and revealing all the deceit of their hearts, very speedily. But that of others was more progressive. They had discovered to them one abomination after another, in their lives, and hence were led to discover the fountain of all corruption in the heart, and thus were constrained to despair of life by the law, and consequently to flee to Jesus Christ as the only refuge, and to rest entirely in his merits. After such sorrowful exercises such as were reconciled to God were blessed with the spirit of adoption, enabling them to cry, “Abba, Father.” Some had greater degrees of consolation than others in proportion to the clearness of the evidences of their sonship. The way in which they received consolation, was either by the application of some particular promise of Scripture ; or by a soul-affecting view of the method of salvation by Christ, as free, without money and without price. With this way of salvation their souls were well pleased, and thereupon they ventured their case into his hands, expecting help from him only. As to the effects of this work on the subjects of it, Mr. Tennent says, they were not only made to know but heartily to approve of the great doctrines of the Gospel, which they were before either ignorant of, or averse to (at least some of them 😉 so that they sweetly agreed in exalting free, special, sovereign grace, through the Redeemer; being willing to glory only in the Lord, who loved them and gave himself for them. They approved of the law of God after the inward man, as holy, just, and good, and prized it above gold. They judged it their duty as well as privilege to wait on God in all his ordinances. A reverence for his commanding authority and gratitude for his love conspired to incite them to a willing, unfeigned, universal, unfainting obedience to his laws; yet they felt that in every thing they came sadly short, and bitterly bewailed their defects. They loved all such as they had reason to think, from their principles, experience and practice, were truly godly, though they differed from them in sentiment as to smaller matters; and looked upon them as the excellent of the earth. They preferred others to themselves, in love; except when under temptation; and their failures they were ready to confess and bewail, generally accounting themselves that they were the meanest of the family of God. Through God’s mercy, adds Mr. Tennent, we have been quite free from enthusiasm. Our people have followed the holy law of God, the sure word of prophecy, and not the impulses of their own minds. There have not been among us, that I know of, any visions, except such as are by faith ; namely, clear and affecting views of the new and living way to the Father through his dear Son Jesus Christ; nor any revelations but what have been long since written in the sacred volume. The leading characteristics of this work were a deep conviction of sin, arising from clear apprehensions of the extent and spirituality of the divine law. This conviction consisted in an humbling sense both of guilt and corruption. It led to the acknowledgment of the justice of God in their condemnation, and of their entire helplessness in themselves. Secondly, clear apprehensions of the mercy of God in Christ Jesus, producing a cordial acquiescence in the plan of salvation presented in the Gospel, and a believing acceptance of the offers of mercy. The soul thus returned to God through Jesus Christ, depending on his merits for the divine favour. Thirdly, this faith produced joy and peace; a sincere approbation of the doctrines of the Gospel; delight in the law of God; a constant endeavour to obey his will; love to the brethren, and a habitually low estimate of themselves and their attainments. This surely is a description of true religion. Here are faith, hope, charity, obedience, and humility, and where these are, there is the Spirit of God, for these are his fruits. The revival in Lawrence, Hopewell, and Amwell, three contiguous towns in New Jersey, commenced under the ministry of Rev. John Rowland, of the Presbytery of New Brunswick. As the churches in two of these towns belonged to the Presbytery of Phila; delphia, and as a large portion of the people did not unite in the call to Mr. Rowland, he at first preached in barns. In 1’744, however, a new congregation was formed under the care of the Presbytery of New Brunswick. According to the account of Mr. Rowland, the revival in these towns was at first slow in its progress, one or two persons only being seriously affected under each sermon. In the spring of 1739, the number increased; and the power of the Spirit evidently attended the word on several occasions, until May, 1740, when the work became more extensive. On one occasion the people cried out so awfully that the preacher was constrained to conclude. After the sermon he inquired of those whose feelings had thus overcome them, what was the real cause of their crying out in such a manner. Some answered, “They saw hell opening before them and themselves ready to fall into it.” Others said, “They were struck with such a sense of their sinfulness that they were afraid the Lord would never have mercy upon them.” During the summer of 1740, the people, on several occasions, were deeply affected, and at times their convictions were attended with great horror, trembling, and loud weeping. Many continued crying in the most doleful manner, along the road, on their way home, and it was not in the power of man to restrain them, for the word of the Lord remained like fire upon their hearts. Of those who were thus affected by a sense of their guilt and danger, many became to all appearance, true Christians ; many went back, and became stiff­necked. The number in the latter class was small, Mr. Rowland says, in comparison to what he had seen in most other places of his acquaintance. Those who were regarded as real converts gave a very distinct account of sin both original and actual. Their views of the corruption of their own hearts, and of their distance from God, were very clear and affecting. Their hardness, unbelief, igno­rance, and blindness, pressed very heavily upon them. Their appre­hension of their need of Christ, and of his Spirit, was such that they could find rest or contentment in nothing, until they had ob­tained an interest in Jesus Christ, and had received his Spirit to sanctify their hearts. Those under conviction were very watchful over themselves, lest they should receive false comfort, and thus rest in unfounded hopes. Their views of the Lord Jesus, as to his per­son, nature, and offices, and of the actings of their own faith and love towards him, were clear and satisfactory. They continued, until the date of this account, careful to maintain a holy commu­nion with God, in the general course of their lives, were zealous for his truth, and walked steadily in his ways. Here, as in the case of Freehold, are to be recognized the essen­tial features of a genuine revival, conviction of sin, faith in Christ, joy and peace in believing, and a holy life. There was, however, apparently, a greater admixture of mere animal feeling in this than in the preceding case. In Newark and Elizabethtown, according to President Dickinson, religion was in a very low state until 1739. In August of that year a remarkable revival, especially among the young, commenced in Newark, which continued and increased during the months of November, December, and January following. There was a gene­ral reformation among the young people, who forsook the taverns and other places of amusement. All occasions for public worship were embraced with gladness. Great solemnity and devout atten­tion were manifested in their assemblies. In March the whole town was brought under an uncommon concern about eternal things; which, during the summer, sensibly abated, though it did not en­tirely die away. Nothing remarkable occurred until February, 1741, when they were again visited with the special effusion of the Spirit of God. A plain, familiar sermon then preached, without any peculiar terror, fervour, or affectionate manner of address, was set home with power. Many were brought to see and feel that till then they had no more than a name to live; and professors in general were put upon solemn inquiry into the foundation of their hope. During the following summer, this religious concern sen­sibly decayed; and, though the sincere converts held fast their pro­fession without wavering, too many of those who had been under­ conviction grew careless and secure. What seemed greatly to con­tribute to. this growing security, was the pride, false and rash zeal, and censoriousness among some who made high pretences to reli­gion. This opened the mouths of many against the whole work, and raised that opposition which was not before heard of. Almost every body seemed to acknowledge the finger of God in those won­derful appearances, until this handle was given to their opposition ; and the dreadful scandals of the Rev. Mr. C., which came to light about this time, proved a means to still further harden many in their declension and apostasy. That unhappy gentleman having made such high pretensions to extraordinary piety and zeal, his scandals gave the deeper wound to vital and experimental godliness. Thus far regarding Newark. In the fall of 1739, the Rev. Mr. Whitefield preached in Elizabethtown to a numerous and attentive audience, but without any marked result. There was no apparent success attending the labours of Mr. Dickinson during that winter; which severely tried his faith and patience, as the neighbouring town was then so remarkably visited. In June, 1740, he invited the young people to hear a discourse designed particularly for their benefit. A large congregation assembled, and he preached a plain, practical sermon, without any special liveliness or vigour, as he was himself in a remarkably dull frame, until enlivened by a sudden and deep impression which visibly appeared on the whole congre­gation. There was no crying out, or falling down, (as elsewhere happened,) but the distress of the audience discovered itself by tears and by audible sobbing and sighing in almost all parts of the house. From this time the usual amusements of the young were laid aside, and private meetings for religious exercises were insti­tuted by them in different parts of the town. Public worship was constantly attended in a very solemn manner by the people gene­rally. More persons applied, in a single day, during this period, to their pastor for spiritual direction, than in half a year before. In another letter, dated September 4, 1740, Mr. Dickinson says: “I have had more young people address me for direction in their spiritual concerns within these three months than within thirty years before.” Though there were so many brought under convic­tion at the same time, there was little appearance of those irregu­lar heats of which so much complaint was made in other parts of the land. Only two or three occurrences of that nature took place, and they were easily and speedily regulated. This work was substantially the same in all the subjects of it. Some indeed suffered more than others, yet all were brought under a deep sense of sin, guilt and danger, and none obtained satisfactory discoveries of their safety, in Christ, till they were brought to despair of all help for themselves, and to feel that they lay at the mercy of God. There were no instances of such sudden conversions, nor of those ecstatic raptures spoken ‘of in other places. Some who at one time were deeply affected, soon wore off their impressions, but Mr. Dickinson says he did not know of any two persons who gave reasonable evi­dence of conversion, who had disappointed his hopes. About sixty persons in Elizabethtown, and a number in the adjoining parish, were regarded as having experienced a change of heart during this revival. In New Brunswick and its neighbourhood, Mr. Gilbert Tennent informs us, the labours of the Rev. Mr. Frelinghuysen, of the Dutch Reformed Church, had been much blessed, especially about the time of his first settlement over that people in the year 1720. When Mr. Tennent took charge of the Presbyterian Church in New Brunswick, about 1727, be had the pleasure of seeing many proofs of the usefulness of his worthy fellow‑labourer in the cause of Christ. Mr. Tennent was much distressed at his own apparent want of success; for eighteen months after his settlement, he saw no evidence that any one had been savingly benefited by his la­bours. He then commenced a serious examination of the members of his church, as to the grounds of their hope, which he found, in many cases, to be but sand. Such he solemnly warned and urged to seek converting grace. By this method many were awakened, and not a few, to all appearance, converted. As the effect of his labours increased, adversaries were multiplied ; and his character was unjustly aspersed, which, however, did not discourage him. He preached much, at this time, upon original sin, repentance, the nature and necessity of conversion ; and endeavoured to alarm the secure by the terrors of the Lord, as well as to affect them by other topics of persuasion. These efforts were followed by the con­viction and conversion of a considerable number of persons at various places, and at different times. During his residence at New Brunswick there was no great ingathering of souls, at any one time, though there were frequent gleanings of a few here and there. During the revival of 1740, New Brunswick, he says, felt some drops of the spreading rain, but no general shower. In his Journal, under the date of November 20, 1739, White­field has the following entry, relating to New Brunswick: “Preached about noon near two hours, in worthy Mr. Tennent’s meeting‑house, to a large assembly gathered from all parts. About 3 P. M. I preached again, and at 7 I baptized two children and preached a third time with greater freedom than at either of the former op­portunities. It is impossible to tell with what pleasure the people of God heard those truths confirmed by a minister of the Church of England, which, for many years, had been preached by their own pastor.” With regard to the revival at Baskinridge, about twenty miles to the north of New Brunswick, we know little, beyond what is stated in Mr. W hitefield’s Journal, under the date just quoted. He there speaks of what he had heard of the wonderful effusions of the Spirit in that congregation, of the frequent sudden conversions which had there occurred, &c. &c. These are all, however, second‑hand reports, on which little reliance can be placed, especially as the pastor of that church, though making the highest pretensions to zeal and piety, was left to bring a sad disgrace upon the ministry and upon the revival of which he was one of the most prominent advocates. Whitefield visited Philadelphia in November, 1739. He found the Episcopal churches, for a time, freely opened to him. On one occasion, he says, “After I had done preaching, a young gentle­man, once a minister of the Church of England, but now secretary to Mr. Penn, stood up, and with a loud voice warned the people against the doctrine which I had been delivering ; urging that there was no such term as imputed righteousness in Holy Scripture, and that such a doctrine put a stop to all goodness. When he had ended, I denied his first proposition, and brought a text to prove that imputed righteousness was a scriptural expression ; but think­ing the church an improper place for disputation, I said no more at that time. The portion of Scripture appointed to be read, was Jeremiah xxiii., wherein are the words, ‘The Lord our righteous­ness.’ Upon them I discoursed in the afternoon, and showed how the Lord Jesus was to be our whole righteousness ; proved how the contrary doctrine overthrew divine revelation; answered the ob­jections that were made against the doctrine of an imputed right­eousness ; produced the Articles of our Church to illustrate it ; and concluded with an exhortation to all, to submit to Jesus Christ, who is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. The word came with power. The church was thronged within and without; all wonderfully attentive, and many, as I was informed, convinced that the Lord Jesus Christ was our righteous­ness.” Whitefield’s sentiments, manner of preaching, and clerical habits were so little in accordance with those of the majority of his Epis­copal brethren, that this harmonious intercourse did not long con­tinue. Their pulpits were soon closed against him, and he com­menced preaching in the open air. One of his favourite stations was the balcony of the old court‑house in Market street. Here he would take his stand, while his audience arranged themselves on the declivity of the hill on which the court‑house stood. The effects produced in Philadelphia by his preaching, “were truly astonishing. Numbers of all denominations, and many who had no connection with any denomination, were brought to inquire, with the utmost earnestness, what they must do to be saved. Such was the eagerness of the multitude for spiritual instruction, that there was public worship regularly twice a day for a year; and on the Lord’s day it was celebrated thrice, and frequently four times.” During the winter of 1739‑10, Whitefield visited the South, and returned to Philadelphia by sea the following spring. His friends now erected a stage for him on what was called Society Hill, where he preached for some time to large and deeply affected audiences. When he left the city, he urged his followers to attend the ministry of the Tennents and their associates. These gentlemen, accord­ingly, continued to labour among the people, and thus cherished and extended the impressions produced by Whitefield’s preaching. In the course of this year, he collected funds for the erection of a permanent building for the use of itinerant ministers. This house afterwards became the seat of the college, and subsequently, uni­versity of Pennsylvania. Here Whitefield preached whenever he visited the city, and here his associates, especially the Tennents, and Messrs. Rowland, Blair, and Finley, ministered during his absence. In 1743, the people who had been accustomed to attend upon the occasional ministrations of the above‑named gentlemen, deter­mined to form themselves into a church, and to call a stated pastor. They accordingly presented a call to the Rev. Gilbert Tennent, who accepted their invitation, and was installed over them by the Presbytery of New Brunswick. In the letter already quoted, Mr. Tennent, after speaking of the low state of religion in Philadelphia, before the visits of Mr. Whitefield, and of the immediate effects of his preaching, says, that though some who were then awakened had lost their seriousness, and others fallen into erroneous doctrines, yet many gave every rational evidence of being true Christians. That some should have been led astray by the fair speeches and cunning craftiness of those that lie in wait to deceive, he thought was not to be wondered at, considering that the greater portion of them had not had the benefit of a strict religious education. Ile says he knew of none, who had been well acquainted with the doctrines of religion, in their connection, and established in them, who had been thus turned aside. In May, 1744, he administered the Lord’s supper to his people, for the first time, as a distinct church. The number of commu­nicants was above one hundred and forty, almost all of whom were the fruits of the recent revival. Besides these, many others con­nected with other churches were regarded as Mr. Whitefield’s con­verts. Mr. Tennent concludes his account by stating, that though there was a considerable falling off in the liveliness of the religious feeling of the people, yet they were growing more humble and merciful, and that their whole conversation made it evident that the bent of their hearts was towards God. The Rev. Samuel Blair gives substantially the following account of the revival in New Londonderry, (Fagg’s Manor,) in Pennsyl­vania. The congregation was formed in that place about the year 1725, and consisted, as did all the Presbyterian churches in Penn­sylvania, with two or three exceptions, of emigrants from Ireland. Mr. Blair, who was the first pastor of the church at Londonderry, was installed there, November, 1739. During that winter, some four or five persons were brought under deep convictions ; and in the following March, during a temporary absence of the pastor, while a neighbouring minister was preaching in his place, such a powerful impression was made upon the people, that some of them broke out into audible crying; a thing previously unknown in that part of the country. A similar effect was produced by the first sermon preached by Mr. Blair, after his return. The number of the awakened now increased very fast, and the Sabbath assemblies were exceedingly large, people coming from all quarters to a place where there was an appearance of the divine presence and power. There was scarcely a sermon preached during that summer, with­out manifest evidence of a deep impression being made upon the hearers. Often this impression was very great and general; some would be overcome to fainting; others deeply sobbing; others cry­ing aloud; while others would be weeping in silence. In some few cases, the exercises were attended by strange convulsive agitations of the body. It was found that the greater portion of those thus seriously affected were influenced by a fixed and rational convic­tion of their dangerous condition. The general behaviour of the people was soon very manifestly altered. Those who were concerned, spent much time in reading the Bible and other good books, and it was a great satisfaction to the people to find how exactly the doctrines which they daily heard preached to them, agreed with those taught by godly men in other places and in former times. Mr. Blair insisted much in his preach­ing upon the miserable state of man by nature, on the way of recovery through Jesus Christ, on the nature and necessity of faith, warning his hearers not to depend upon their repentance, prayers, or reformation ; nor to seek peace in extraordinary ways, by visions, dreams, or immediate inspirations, but by an understand­ing view and believing persuasion of the way of life, as revealed in the gospel, through the suretyship‑obedience and sufferings of Jesus Christ. His righteousness they were urged to accept as the only means of justification and life. Many of those who were convinced, soon gave satisfactory evidence that God had brought them to a saving faith in Christ. In most cases, the Holy Spirit seemed to use for this purpose some particular passage of the Scriptures, some promise or some declara­tion of the way of salvation through Jesus Christ. In others, there was no such prominence in the mind of the inquirer, given to any one particular passage. Those who experienced such remarkable relief could not only give a rational account of the change in their feelings, but also exhibited the usual fruits of a genuine faith; par­ticularly humility, love, and affectionate regard to the will and hon­our of God. Much of their exercises was in self‑abasing and self­loathing, and admiring the astonishing condescension arid grace of God towards those who were so unworthy. They freely and sweetly chose the way of his commands, and were desirous to live according to his will and to the glory of his name. There were others who had no such lively exercises, and yet gave evidence of faith in Christ, though it was not attended with such a degree of liberty and joy. Such persons, however, generally long continued to be suspicious of their own case. As to the permanent results of this work, it is stated that those who had merely some slight impressions of a religious character, soon lost them ; and some who were for a time greatly distressed, seemed to have found peace in some other way than through faith in Christ. There were, however, a considerable number who gave scriptural evidence of having been savingly renewed. Their walk was habitually tender and conscientious; their carriage towards their neighbours was just and kind, and they had a peculiar love to all who bore the image of God. They endeavoured to live for God, and were much grieved ,m account of their imperfections, and the plague of their hearts. Entire harmony prevailed in the congre­gation. Indeed there was scarcely any open opposition to the work from the beginning, though some few of the people withdrew, and joined the ministers who unhappily opposed the revival. During the summer of 1740, the shower of divine influence spread extensively through Pennsylvania, and beyond the borders of that province. Certain ministers distinguished for their zeal were earnestly sought for in all directions; vacant congregations solicited their services; and even some of the clergy who were not disposed heartily to co‑operate in the work,, yielded to the importu­nity of their people, and invited those ministers to visit their con­gregations. Great assemblies would ordinarily meet to hear them, upon any day of the week, and frequently a surprising power attended their preaching. Great numbers were thus convinced of their perishing condition, and there is every reason to believe that many were savingly converted to God. Among the places in Pennsylvania particularly favoured during this season, were New Providence, Nottingham, White Clay Creek, and Neshaminy. With regard to the first of these places, Mr. Rowland, who after leaving New Jersey laboured much among those churches, says that it was while he was travelling among them that God chose as the time of their ingathering to Christ, and that since he laboured statedly among those people be was as much engaged in endeavouring to build up those who had been called into fellow­ship with God, as to awaken and convince the careless. “As to their conviction, and conversion unto God,” he adds, “they are able to give a scriptural account of them. I forbear to speak of many extraordinary appearances, such as scores crying out at one instant, falling, and fainting. These people are still increasing, blessed be the Lord, and are labouring to walk in communion with God and one another.” Whitefield mentions his having preached at Neshaminy on the 23d of April, 1740, to more than five thousand persons; “upwards of fifty,” he adds, “I hear, have lately been brought under convic­tion of sin in this place.” With regard to Nottingham he gives the following account. ” There a good work had begun some time ago, by the ministry of Mr. Blair, Messrs. Tennent, and Air. Cross ; the last of whom was denied the use of the pulpit, and was obliged to preach in the woods, where the Lord manifested his glory, and caused many to cry out, What shall we do to be saved ? It surprised me to see such a multitude gathered together at so short a notice, in such a desert place. I believe there were near twelve thousand hear­ers. I had not spoken long, when I perceived numbers melting. And as I preached, the power increased, till at last, both in the morning and afternoon, thousands cried out, so that they almost drowned my voice. Never before did I see a more glorious sight. O what strong crying and tears were shed and poured forth after the dear Lord Jesus! Some fainted; and when they had got a little strength, would hear and faint again. Others cried out in a manner almost as if they were in the sharpest agonies of death. I think I was never myself filled with greater power. After I had finished my last discourse, I was so pierced, as it were, and overpowered with God’s love, that some thought, I believe, that I was about to give up the ghost.” The next day he preached at Fagg’s Manor, where the congregation was nearly as large as it had been at Nottingham, and ” the commotion in the hearts of the people” as great, if not greater. It is evident there must have been an extraordinary influence on the minds of the people to produce such vast assemblies, and such striking effects from the preaching of the gospel. There is no rea­son to doubt that there was much that was rational and scriptural in the experience of the persons thus violently agitated; yet there can be as little doubt that much of the outward effect above described was the result of mere natural excitement, produced by powerful impressions made upon excited imaginations by the fervid eloquence of the preacher, and propagated through the crowd by the mysterious influence of sympathy. Mr. Whitefield preached in New York repeatedly, during his second and third visits to this country, and was kindly received by the Rev. Mr. Pemberton, pastor of the Presbyterian church in that city, but no very remarkable results seem to have there attended his ministry. In no part of our country was the revival more interesting, and in very few was it so pure as in Virginia. The state of religion in that province was deplorable. There was “a surprising negli­gence in attending public worship, and an equally surprising levity and unconcernedness in those that did attend. Family religion a rarity, and a solemn concern about eternal things a greater. Vices of various kinds triumphant, and even a form of godliness not com­mon.”* “Much the larger portion of the clergy were, at this time, deficient in the great duty of placing distinctly before the people the fundamental truths of the gospel.” Various circum­stances had conspired to supply the established church of Virginia with ministers unfitted for their stations; and under the influence of men unqualified to be either the teachers or examples of their flocks, religion had been reduced to a very low state. There were indeed some faithful ministers, and some who were sincerely seeking the Lord in the communion of the Church of England. Still all accounts agree as to the general prevalence of irreligion among both the clergy and the laity. It seems that even before the year 1740, some persons had been led, partly by their own reflections, and partly by the perusal of some of the writings of Flavel and others, to feel a deep interest in the concerns of religion. This was the case particularly with Mr. Samuel Morris, who having obtained relief to his own mind, became anxious for the salvation of his neighbours. He accordingly began to read to them the works which he had found so use­ful to himself, especially Luther on the Galatians. In the year 1 740, Mr. Whitefield preached at Williamsburg. Though the little company, of which Mr. Morris was the centre, did not enjoy the advantage of hearing Mr. Whitefield preach, his visit awakened interest in the man, and prepared them to receive his writings with favour. Accordingly, when in 1743, a volume of his sermons was brought into the neighbourhood, Mr. Morris invited his friends to meet and hear them read. A considerable number of persons at­tended for this purpose every Sabbath, and frequently on other days. Mr. Morris’ dwelling being too small to accommodate his audience, a meeting‑house was soon erected, merely for the purpose of reading ; not being accustomed to extempore prayer, no one of the company had courage to attempt to lead in that exercise. The attention thus excited gradually diffused itself, so that Mr. Morris was frequently invited to distant places to read his sermons to the people. These meetings soon attracted the attention of the magis­trates, and those who frequented them were called upon to account for their non‑attendance on the services of the established church, and to state to what denomination of Christians they belonged. This latter demand puzzled them not a little. The only dissenters of whom they knew any thing were Quakers, and as they were not Quakers, they could not tell what they were. At length recollect­ing that Luther was a great reformer, and that his writings had been particularly serviceable to them, they determined to call them­selves Lutherans. About this time, the Rev. William Robinson, on a mission from the Presbytery of New Brunswick, visited that part of Virginia. He founded a church in Lunenburg, now Char­lotte, and preached with much success. Also in Hanover, Mr. Morris and his friends begged him to preach in their reading‑house, an invitation which he gladly accepted. “The congregation,” says Mr. Morris, “was large the first day, and vastly increased the three ensuing ones. It is hard for the liveliest imagination to form an image of the condition of the assembly on those glorious days of the Son of man. Such of us as had been hungering for the word before, were lost in agreeable astonishment, and could not refrain from publicly declaring our transport. We were overwhelmed with the thoughts of the unexpected goodness of God, in allowing us to hear the gospel preached in a manner which sur­passed our hopes. Many that came from curiosity were pricked in the heart, and but few in the numerous assemblies appeared unaf­fected.” Soon after Mr. Robinson’s departure, the Rev. John Blair visited them, when former impressions were revived and new ones made in many hearts. He was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Roan, who was sent by the Presbytery of New Castle, and con­tinued with them longer than either of the others. The good ef­fects of this gentleman’s labours were very apparent. He was instrumental in beginning and promoting a religious concern, in many places where there was little appearance of it before. “This, together with his speaking pretty freely of the degeneracy of the clergy in this colony,” says Mr. Morris, “gave a general alarm, and some measures were concerted to suppress us. To increase the indignation of the government the more, a perfidious wretch de­posed that he heard Mr. Roan utter blasphemous expressions in his sermon. An indictment was accordingly drawn up against Mr. R., though he had by that time departed the colony, and some who had invited him to preach at their houses were cited to appear be­fore the general court, and two of them were fined.” The indict­ment, however, against Mr. Roan was dropped, the witnesses cited against him testifying in his favour, and his accuser fled the pro­vince. Still as the opposition of those in authority continued, and “all circumstances seeming to threaten the extirpation of religion among the dissenters,” they determined to apply to the Synod of New York for advice and assistance. This application was made in 1745, when that body drew up an address to the governor, Sir William Gooch, and sent it by Messrs. William Tennent and Sam­uel Finley. These gentlemen having been kindly received by the governor, were allowed to preach, and remained about a week. After their departure, the meetings for reading and prayer were continued, though Mr. Morris was repeatedly fined for absenting himself from church and keeping up unlawful assemblies.. In 1747, the opposition of the government became more serious, and a proclamation was affixed to the door of the meeting‑house, calling on the magistrates to prevent all itinerant preaching. This prevented the usual services for one Sabbath, but before the succeed­ing Lord’s day the Rev. Mr. Davies arrived in the neighbourhood, having been sent by the Presbytery of New Castle, and legally qualified to preach according to the act of toleration. He peti­tioned the general court for permission to officiate in four meeting­houses in and about Hanover, and his request, after some delay, was granted. Ill health prevented Mr. Davies from commencing his labours among this people as their pastor, until the spring of 1748. In October, 1748, three additional places of worship were licensed. The people under his charge were sufficiently numerous, if compactly situated, to form three distinct congregations. In 1751, the date of Mr. Davies’s narrative, there were three hundred communicants in these infant churches. There were at this period two other Presbyterian congregations, one in Albemarle, and the other in Augusta, which were supplied with ministers in connection with the Synod of Philadelphia. The Presbyterians in Virginia, in connection with the Synod of New York, though much more numerous than those belonging to the other Synod, were, except the churches in Hanover, destitute of pastors. President Davies says they were numerous enough to form at least five congrega­tions; three in Augusta, one in Frederick, and one in Amelia and Lunenburg. “Were you a bigot,” says Mr. Davies to Dr. Bel­lamy, “you would no doubt rejoice to hear that there are hundreds of dissenters in a place where a few years ago there were not ten; but I assure myself of your congratulations on a nobler account, because a considerable number of perishing sinners are gained to the blessed Redeemer, with whom, though you never see them here, you may spend a blissful eternity. After all, poor Virginia demands your compassion; religion at present is but like the cloud which Elijah’s servant saw.” ####History of the Revival in New England While the revival was thus extending itself through almost all parts of the Presbyterian Church, it was perhaps still more general and remarkable throughout New England. In Northampton, where President Edwards had been settled since 1726, there had been a revival in 1734‑35, which extended more or less through Hamp­shire county, and to many adjoining places in Connecticut. In the spring of 1740, before the visit of Mr. Whitefield, there was a growing seriousness through the town, especially among the young people. When that gentleman came to the place in Octo­ber, he preached four or five sermons with his usual force and in­fluence. In about a month there was a great alteration in the town, both in the increased fervour and activity of professors of religion, and in the awakened attention of sinners. In May, 1741, a sermon was preached at a private house, when one or two persons were so affected by the greatness and glory of divine things, that they were not able to conceal it, the affection of their minds over­coming their strength, and having an effect on their bodies. After the exercises, the young people removed to another room to inquire of those thus exercised, what impressions they had experienced. The affection was quickly propagated round the room ; many of the young people and children appeared to be overcome with the sense of divine things, and others with distress about their sinful­ness and danger, so that “the room was full of nothing but outcries, faintings, and such like.” Others soon came to look on; many of whom were overpowered in like manner. The months of August and September of this year were most remarkable for the number of convictions and conversions, for the revival of profes­sors, and for the external effects of this state of excitement. It was no uncommon thing to see a house, as Edwards expresses it, full of outcries, faintings, convulsions, and the like, both from dis­tress, and also from admiration and joy. The work continued much in the same state until February, 1742, when Mr. Buel came and laboured among the people during a temporary absence of the pas­tor. The effect of his preaching was very extraordinary. The people were greatly moved, great numbers crying out during public worship, and many remaining in the house for hours after the ser­vices were concluded. The whole town was in a great and con­tinual commotion night and day. Mr. Buel remained a fortnight after Mr. Edwards’s return, and the same effects continued to attend his preaching. There were instances of persons lying twenty‑four hours in a trance, apparently senseless, though under strong imagi­nations, as though they went to heaven and had there visions of glorious objects. When the people were raised to this height, Satan took the advantage, and his interpositions, in many instances, soon became apparent, and a great deal of pains was necessary to keep the people from running wild. President Edwards states, that he considered this revival much more pure than that of 1734‑5, at least during the years 1740, 1741, and the early part of 1742. Towards the close of the last­mentioned year, an unfavourable influence was exerted upon the congregation from abroad. This remark shows that he did not consider the scenes which he describes as attending Mr. Buel’s preaching, as affording any reason to doubt the purity of the revival. What he disapproved of occurred at a later period, and had a different origin. When his people saw that there were greater commotions in other places, and when they heard of greater pro­fessions of zeal and rapture than were common among themselves, they thought others had made higher attainments in religion, and were thus led away by them. These things plainly show, says Mr. Edwards, that the degree of grace is not to be judged by the degree of zeal or joy; that it is not the strength, but the nature of religious affections which is to be regarded. Some, who had the highest raptures, and the greatest bodily exercises, showed the least of a Christian temper. Though there were few cases of scan­dalous sin among professors, the temper and behaviour of some, he adds, led him to fear that a considerable number were awfully deceived. On the other hand, there were many whose temper was truly Christian; and the work, notwithstanding its corrupt admix­tures, produced blessed fruit in particular persons, and some good effects in the town in general. If such scenes as those just referred to occurred in Northampton, under the eye of President Edwards, we may readily imagine what was likely to occur in other places under men far his inferiors in judgment, knowledge, and piety. Though Edwards never regarded these outcries and bodily affections as any evidence of true religious affections, he was at this time much less sensible of the danger of encouraging such manifestations of excitement, than he afterwards became. Nor does he seem to have been sufficiently aware of the nature and effects of nervous disorders, which in times of excitement are as infectious as any form of disease to which the human system is liable. When he speaks of certain per­sons being seized with a strange bodily affection, which quickly propagated itself round the room, especially among the young; and of spectators, after a while, being similarly affected, he gives as plain an example of the sympathetic propagation of a nervous disorder, as is to be found in the medical records of disease. There may have been, and no doubt there was, much genuine religious feeling in that meeting, but these bodily affections were neither the evidence, nor, properly speaking, the result of it. In September, 1740, Mr. Whitefield first visited Boston, when multitudes were greatly affected by his ministry. Though he preached every day, the houses continued to be crowded until his departure. The December following, Mr. G. Tennent arrived, whose preaching was followed by still greater effects. Many hundreds, says Mr. Prince, were brought by his searching ministry to be deeply convinced of sin; to have clear views of the divine sove­reignty, holiness, justice, and power; of the spirituality and strict­ness of the divine law, and of the dreadful corruption of their own hearts, and “its utter impotence either rightly to repent or believe in Christ, or change itself;” of their utter unworthiness in the sight of a righteous God, of their being “without the least degree of strength to help themselves out of this condition.” On Monday, March 2, 1741, Mr. Tennent preached his farewell sermon, to an extremely crowded and deeply affected audience. “And now was a time such as we never knew. Mr. Cooper was wont to say, that more came to him in one week, in deep concern about their souls, than in the whole twenty‑four years of his previous ministry.” In three months, he had six hundred such calls, and Mr. Webb above a thousand. The very face of the town was strangely altered. There were some thousands under such religious impressions as they never knew before; and the fruits of the work, says Mr. Cooper, in 1741, as far as time had been allowed to test them, promised to be abiding. The revival in Boston seems to have been much more pure than in most other places, and it thus continued until the arrival of Mr. Davenport in June, 1742. Mr. Prince says he met with only one or two persons who talked of their impulses ; that he knew of no minister who encouraged reliance on such enthusiastic impressions. “The doctrinal principles,” he adds, “of those who continue in our congregations, and have been the subjects of the late revival, are the same as they all along have been instructed in, from the Westminster Shorter Catechism, which has generally been received and taught in the churches of New England, from its first publication, for one hundred years to the present day; and which is therefore the system of doctrine most generally and clearly declarative of the faith of the New England churches.” There seems also to have been far less extravagance in Boston than attended the excitement in most other places. “We have neither had,” says Dr. Colman, “those outcries and faintings in our assemblies, which have disturbed the worship in many places, nor yet those manifestations of joy inexpressible which now fill some of our eastern parts.” When Mr. Whitefield left Boston in October, 17 40, he went to Northampton, preaching at most of the intervening towns. After spending a few days with President Edwards, as already mentioned, he proceeded to New Haven, and thence to New York. Every­where, during this journey, the churches and houses were freely opened to him, and everywhere, to a greater or less degree, his dis­courses were attended by the same remarkable effects as elsewhere followed his preaching. Mr. Tennent also, after leaving Boston, made an extended tour through New England, and was very instru­mental in awakening the attention of the people. His stature was large, and his whole appearance commanding. He wore his hair undressed, and his usual costume in the pulpit, at least during this journey, was a loose great coat with a leathern girdle about his loins.‑ As a preacher he had few equals. His reasoning powers were strong; his expressions nervous and often sublime; his style diffusive ; his manner warm and pathetic, such as must convince his audience that he was in earnest; and his voice clear and command­ing. “When I heard Mr. Tennent,” says the celebrated Dr. Hop­kins, then a student in Yale College, “I thought he was the great­est and best man, and the best preacher that I had ever seen or heard.” Mr. Prince of Boston, says, “He did not at first come up to my expectations, but afterwards far exceeded them. He seemed to have as deep an acquaintance with experimental religion as any I have ever conversed with ; and his preaching was as search­ing and rousing as any I ever heard.” Such appears to have been the general style of his preaching during this tour; for the Rev. W. Fish, in giving an account of the origin of the revival, says, “When the ears of the people were thus opened to hear, and their hearts awake to receive instruction, there came a son of thunder, Rev. Gilbert Tennent, through these parts, by whose enlightening and alarming discourses, people were more effectually roused up, and put upon a more earnest inquiry after the great salvation.” Mr. Tennent, in a letter to Mr. Whitefield, dated April, 1741, says that, on his return homeward from Boston, he preached daily, ordinarily three times a day, and sometimes oftener, (a few days only excepted 😉 and that his success had far exceeded his expecta­tions. He enumerates at least twenty‑three towns in which he had thus laboured, and adds that, on a moderate calculation, “divers thousands had been awakened. The transient impressions, however, made by a passing preacher would, in all probability, have been of little avail, had they not been followed by the laborious and continued efforts of the settled pastors. Such efforts were in most cases made, and the revival soon became general through almost the whole of Massachusetts and Connecticut, and a considerable part of Rhode Island. In Con­necticut, the work was probably more extensive than in any other of the colonies, and was greatly promoted by the labours of Messrs. Pomeroy, Mills, Wheelock, and Bellamy. “Dr. Pomeroy was a man of real genius ; grave, solemn, and weighty in his discourses, which were generally well composed, and delivered with a great degree of animation and affection. His language was good, and he might be reckoned among the best preachers of his day.” Dr. Wheelock, says the same authority, “was a gentleman of a comely figure, of a mild and winning aspect. His voice smooth and har­monious, the best by far that I ever heard. His preaching and addresses were close and pungent, and yet winning almost beyond all comparison, so that his audience would be melted even to tears before they were aware of it.” Dr. Bellamy “was a large man and well built, of a commanding appearance. He had a smooth strong voice, and could fill the largest house without any unnatural effort. He possessed a truly great mind; generally preached with­out notes; had some great point of doctrine commonly to establish, and would keep close to his subject until he had sufficiently illus­trated it, and then in an ingenious, close, and pungent manner, would make the application.” Such were the more prominent promoters of this great revival. As this work was more extensive in Connecticut than elsewhere, so it was there attended with greater disorders, and was more violently opposed, and in many cases led to disastrous separations and lasting conflicts. Severe penal laws were enacted against itinerant preaching ; several ministers were transported out of the colony ; others were deprived of their salaries or fined. The act for the indulgence of sober consciences was repealed in 1743, so that there “was no relief for any persons dissent­ing from the established mode of worship in Connecticut, but upon application to the assembly, who were growing more rigid in en­forcing the constitution.” The General Association, on the occa­sion of Whitefield’s second visit in 1745, declared him to be the promoter, or at least the faulty occasion of the errors and disorders which there prevailed ; and voted that it was not advisable for the ministers to admit him into their pulpits, or for the people to attend his ministrations.