Table of Contents


The Reformation In England

Volume Two Book One England Begins to Cast off the Papacy


The Nation and its Parties Autumn, 1529

Diverse Religious Tendencies — Evangelical Reformation and Legal Reformation — Creation of a Mighty Protestantism — Election of a New Parliament — Alarm of the Clerical Party — The Three Parties — The Society of Christian Brethren — General Movement in London — Banquet and Conversations of Peers and Members of Parliament — Agitation among the People


Parliament and its Grievances November, 1529

Impulse given to Political Liberty by the Reformation — Grievances put Forward by the House of Commons — Exactions, Benefices, Holy Days, Imprisonments — The House of Commons Defend the Evangelicals — Question of the Bishops — Their Answer — Their Proceedings in the Matter of Reform


Early Reforms End of 1529

Abuses Pointed Out and Corrected — The Clergy Reform in Self-Defense — Fisher Accuses the Commons who Complain to the King — Subterfuge of the Bishops — Rudeness of the Commons — Suppression of Pluralities and Non-Residence — These Reforms Insufficient — Joy of the People — Sorrow of the Clergy


Anne Boleyn’s Father Meets the Emperor and the Pope Winter, 1530

Motives of Henry VIII — Congress al Bologna — Henry Sends an Embassy — Cranmer Added to the Embassy — The Pope’s Embarrassment and Alarm — Clement Grants the Englishmen an Audience — The Pope’s Foot — Threats — Wiltshire Received and Checked by Charles — Discontent of the English — Wiltshire’s Departure — Cranmer Remains


Oxford and Cambridge Debate the Divorce Winter, 1530

Parties at Cambridge — A Noisy Assembly — Murmurs against the Evangelicals — A Meeting Declares for the King — Honor Paid to Scripture — The King’s Severe Letter to Oxford — Opposition of the Younger Members of the University — The King’s Anger — Another Royal Mission to Oxford — The University Decides for the Divorce — Evangelical Courage of Chaplain Latimer — The King and the Chancellor of Cambridge


Henry Appeals to Foreign Opinion January to September, 1530

The Sorbonne Deliberates on the Divorce — The French Universities Sanction the Divorce — The Italian Universities Do Likewise — Opinion of Luther — Cranmer at Rome — The English Nobles Write to the Pope — The Pope Proposes that the King Should Have Two Wives — Henry’s Proclamation against Papal Bulls


Latimer at Court January to September, 1530

Latimer tempted by the Court, Fortified by Study — Christian Individuality — Latimer Desires to Convert the King — Desires for the Church, Poverty, the Cross, and the Bible — He Prays the King to Save his own Soul — Latimer’s Preaching — No Intermingling of the Two Powers — Latimer’s Boldness in the Cause of Morality — Priests Denounce Him to the King — Noble Character of the Reformers


The King Seeks Tyndale January to May, 1531

The Ivy and the Tree, or the Practice of Popery — Vaughan Looks for the Invisible Tyndale — Vaughan visited by a Stranger — Interview between Vaughan and Tyndale in a Field — Tyndale Mistrusts the Clergy — The King’s Indignation — Tyndale is Touched by the Royal Compassion — The King Wishes to Gain Fryth — Faith First, and then the Church — Henry Threatens the Evangelicals with War


The King of England—”Head of the Church” January to March, 1531

Supremacy of the Pope Injurious to the State — All the Clergy Declared Guilty — Challenged to Recognize the Royal Supremacy — Anguish of the Clergy — They Negotiate and Submit — Discussions in the Convocation of York — Danger of the Royal Supremacy


The King Puts Catherine away March to June, 1531

The Divorce Question Agitates the Country — A Case of Poisoning — Reginald Pole — Pole’s Discontent — The King’s Favors — Pole’s Frankness and Henry’s Anger — Bids Henry Submit to the Pope — Queen Catherine Leaves the Palace


“Not Sparing the Flock” September, 1531 to 1532

Stokesley Proposes that the Inferior Clergy Shall Pay — Riot among the Priests — The Bishop’s Speech — A Battle — To Conciliate the Clergy, Henry Allows Them to Persecute the Protestants

CHAPTER 12 The Martyrs


The Repentant Bilney Preaches in the Fields — His Enemies and his Friends — Bilney Put into Prison, where He Meets Petit — Disputation and Trial — Bilney Condemned to Die — The Parting Visit of his Friends — He is Led out to Punishment — His Last Words — His Death — Imprisonment and Martyrdom of Bayfield — Tewkesbury Bound to the Tree of Truth — His Death — Numerous Martyrs


The King Despoils the Pope and Clergy March to May, 1532

Character of Thomas Cromwell — Supplications against the Ordinaries — The Clergy Bend before the King — Two Contradictory Oaths — Priestly Rumors — Sir Thomas More Resigns — Act of Annates — The Two Evils of a Regal Reform


Liberty of Inquiry and Preaching 1532

The Perils of a Prosperous Nation — Lambert and Free Inquiry — Luther’s Principles — Images or the Word of God — Freedom of Preaching — St. Paul Burnt by the Bishop — Latimer Disgusted with the Court — More Thieves than Shepherds — A Don Quixote of Catholicism — Latimer Summoned before the Primate — His Firmness — Attempt to Entrap Him — His Refusal to Recant — Excommunicated — Expedient of the Bishops — Latimer saved by his Conformity with Luther


Henry VIII Attacks Romanists and Protestants 1532

The Franciscans Preach against the King — Henry Likened to Ahab — Disturbance in the Chapel — Christian Meetings in London — Bainham persecuted by More — Summoned to Abjure — The Fatal Kiss — Bainham’s Anguish — The Tragedy of Conscience — Bainham visited in his Dungeon — The Bed of Roses — The Persecutor’s Suicide — Effect of the Martyrdoms — The True Church of God


The New Primate of All England February, 1532 to March, 1533

Who shall be Warham’s Successor? — Cranmer at Nuremberg — Osiander’s Household — His Error — Cranmer Marries — Is Recalled to London — Refuses to Return — Follows the Emperor to Italy — Date of Henry’s Marriage with Anne Boleyn — Cranmer Returns to London — Struggle between the King and Cranmer — The Pope Has no Authority in England — Appointment of Bishops without the Pope — Cranmer Protests Thrice — All Weakness is a Fault — The True Doctrine of the Episcopate — The Appeal of the Reformers


Queen Catherine Descends from the Throne, and Anne Boleyn Ascends it November, 1532 to July, 1533

Clement Suggests that Henry Should Have Two Wives — His Perilous Journey to Bologna — His Exertions for the Divorce — King’s Marriage with Anne Becomes Known — France and England Separate — A Threatening Brief — The Pope Perplexed — Parliament Emancipates England — Cranmer’s Letter to the King — Modification Demanded by the King — Henry Expresses Himself Clearly — Meeting of the Ecclesiastical Court — Catherine’s Firmness — Her Marriage Annulled — Queen Anne Presented to the People — Her Progress through the City — Feelings of the New Queen — Catherine and Anne — Threats of the Pope and the King


Fryth in the Tower August, 1532 to May, 1533

Fryth’s Charming Character — He Returns to England — Purgatory — Homer Saves Fryth — The Eating of Christ — Fryth Goes over England — Tyndale’s Letter to Fryth — More Hunts after Fryth — More’s Ill temper — More and Fryth — Fryth in Prison — He Writes the Bulwark — Rastell converted — Fryth’s Visitors in the Tower — Fryth and Petit — Cause and Effect


A Reformer Chooses rather to Lose his Life than Save it May to July, 1533

Fryth Summoned before a Royal Commission — Tyndale’s Letter to Fryth — Cranmer Attempts to Save Him — Lord Fitzwilliam, Governor of the Tower — Fryth removed to Lambeth — Attempt at Conciliation — Fryth Remains firm — A Prophecy Concerning the Lord’s Supper — The Gentleman and the Porter Desire to Save Fryth — Their Plan — Fryth Will Not Be Saved — Fryth before the Episcopal Court — Interrogated on the Real Presence — Cranmer Cannot Save Him — Fryth’s Condemnation and Execution — Influence of his Writings


The Isolation of England 1533

Sensation Caused by Anne’s Marriage — Henry’s Isolation — The Protestants Reject Him — Birth of Elizabeth — A new Star — English Envoys at Marseilles — Bonner and Gardiner — Prepare for a Declaration of War — The Pope’s Emotion — Henry Appeals to a General Council — The Pope’s Anger — Francis I and Clement understand One Another — The Pope’s Answer — Bonner’s Rudeness — Henry’s Proclamation against the Pope — The Dividing Point


Parliament Abolishes Papal Usurpations in England January To March, 1534

Henry Desires to Separate Christendom from Rome — A Buffet to the Pope — The People, Not the King, Want the Reformation — The Pope Tries to Gain Henry — Cranmer Presses Forward — The Commons against Papal Authority — Abolition of Romish Exactions — Parliament Declares for the Faith of the Scriptures — Henry Condemned at Rome — The Pope’s Disquietude — A Great Dispensation


England Breaks with Rome


A Conspiracy against the Reformation March & April, 1534

A Critical Time — The King Condemned at Rome — Two Days Too Late — The English Envoys and the Bishop of Paris — Miscalculations of the English Envoys — The People and the Clergy against the Pope — Reaction of UItramontanism — An Epileptic Girl — The Nun of Kent — Scene in a Chapel — Oracles and Miracles — Political Enterprise — The Nun before the King — Her Partisans Increase in Number — Attempts to Bring over Sir Thomas More — The Conspiracy — New Allies — The Nun and the Conspirators Are Arrested — Contrition of Sir Thomas More — Condemnation of the Criminal — Death of the Maid of Kent


The Church Becomes a Department of State Christmas, 1533 to June, 1534

The King’s Proceedings against Catherine — The Monks and the Priests Renounce the Pope — Preparations of Charles V against Henry — Henry Prepares to Resist him — The Two Chiefs of the Anti-Roman Party — The Orator of the Reformation — The King Abolishes the Authority of the Pope — The Sheriffs Ordered to See the Proclamation Carried Out — The Church, a Department of the State — Authority in the Church — Form which the Church Might Have Assumed — Various Systems


Tyndale and his Enemies 1534 to August 1535

Tyndale Translates the Old Testament at Antwerp — His Charity and Zeal — Joye Pretends to Correct his Version — Tyndale’s Noble Protest — Anne Protects the Friends of the Gospel — Her Message in Harman’s Favor — Discontent of the King — Plot against Tyndale — Snares Laid for him — Stratagem — Attempt at Bribery — Recourse to the Imperial Government — Tyndale’s House Surrounded — The Traitor — Tyndale’s Arrest — His Imprisonment in the Castle of Vilvorde — The Life of the Reformers: Apologies for the Reformation


Henry VIII as King — Pontiff 1534–1535

Opposition of Certain Priests — Mental Restrictions — Fanatical Monks and Timid Monks — Agitation of Sir Thomas More — More and Fisher Refuse to Take the Oath — They are Taken to the Tower — The Carthusians Required to Swear — Paul III desires to Bring Back England — Henry Rejects the Papacy — Severe Laws Concerning his Primacy — The King Not the Head of the Church


Henry Destroys his Opponents 1534–1535

Frankness and Misery of Sir Thomas More — Confusion in England — Character of Cranmer — Cranmer’s Work — The Bible to be Translated into English — Cranmer’s Joy — Failure of the Translation by the Bishops — Popish and Seditious Preachers — The King Orders the Carthusians to Reject the Pope — The Carthusians Resolve to Die — Threats of Revolt — Incompatibility of Popery and Liberty — The Carthusians are Condemned — Execution of the Three Priors — Henry Strikes on All Sides


Two Notable Executions May to September, 1535

Fisher raised to the Cardinalate at Rome, condemned to Death at London — Piety of his Last Moments — His Christian Death — More before the Court of King’s Bench — He is Sentenced to Death — Taken Back to the Tower — Meeting with his Daughter — General Emotion — More’s Mortifications — Morning of 6th July — His Last Words — His Death — Sensation Produced by these Two Executions — Effects on the Continent — Fanatical Bull against Henry VIII — Henry Justifies Himself at Rome — His Excuses Not Valid


The Dissolution of the Smaller Monasteries September, 1535 to 1536

State of the Monasteries — Gluttonous Living — General Disgust — Cranmer’s Advice to the King — Children of Darkness Caught in a Net — General Visitation Ordered — The Laity Reappear — The Commissioners — The Universities — Cranmer on Rome — The Visitation Begins — Corruption of Morals in the Monasteries — Immorality in the Abbey of Langdon — Robberies, Debaucheries, Frauds — The Holy Bottle at Hales — The Fraud at Boxley — Coining False Money — Cruelties — The Visitors Besieged at Norton — The Nunneries — Apologists and Detractors — Many Monks and Nuns Set Free — Report of the Commissioners — Deliberations of the Council — Effect of the Report upon Parliament — Three Hundred and Seventy-Six Monasteries Abolished — Real Religious Homes — Latimer and Cranmer — Covetousness of the Nobility — Bad Use of the Monastic Property — Testimony of the Monks — The Measure Accomplished — Terror and Despair — New Institutions — National Prosperity — Social and Political Developments — Transformation of Society


Henry Negotiates with German Lutherans 15341535

Henry VIII Makes Advances to Melanchthon — The Reformer Rejects Them — Luther and the Elector Incline to Henry — The Errors of Intolerance — A New English Embassy to Germany — The Alliance is Signed — Cranmer Saves Mary — Conference with Catherine — Catherine’s Firmness, Asceticism, and Illness — Preparations of Charles V against England — Catherine’s Will, her Farewell, and Death — Anne Boleyn’s Feelings on Hearing of her Death — England and Germany Seek to Unite — Theological Discussion at Wittenberg — Will Luther Concede Anything? — A Master and Slaves at the Court of England


The Accusation of the Queen 1535 to May, 1536

Error Concerning the Beginning of the Reformation — Anne Boleyn’s Virtues and Good Works — Her Relations with Cranmer and Latimer — With Tyndale and Parker — Parker’s Christian Character — Anne Boleyn’s Character — The Truth about Queen Anne — Her Enemies — Henry Attracted by Jane Seymour — Queen Anne’s Manners — Her Anguish — Her Stillborn Son — Her Sadness and Anxiety — Anne’s Zeal for the Reformation — Discontent of the Ultramontanists — Anne’s Dangers Increase — Her Anxiety for her Daughter — The Four Articles of the Indictment — Character of Henry VIII — Commission of Enquiry — Brereton and Smeaton Arrested — The Tournament at Greenwich — The King Makes a Scene — Anne before Norfolk and the Council — Anne Boleyn in the Tower — Her Piety and Innocence — Her Sorrow — Critical Position of Cranmer — His Letter to the King — False Policy of Cranmer — Harsh Surveillance of the Queen — Peace and Agitation in her Heart — Extraordinary Transport


The Execution of Anne Boleyn May, 1536

The Judge Acknowledges Anne’s Innocence — Her Enemies and her Renunciation of the World — Dignity of her Answer — Anne’s Letter to the King — Its Effect upon Henry — Northumberland’s Declaration — The Jury — Condemnation of Norris — The Queen and her Brother before the Peers — Anne’s Dignity — Effect Produced in the City — Sentence of Death — Anne’s Farewell Address to the Peers — Lord Rocheford condemned — The Four Gentlemen Beheaded — Henry Annuls his Marriage with Anne — Joy and Hope of the Pope — Anne’s Self-Reproach — Asks Pardon of Princess Mary — Anne’s Communion — Miracles of the Priests — Anne’s Last Message to Henry — Preparations upon the Tower Green — A Noble Pardon — Emotion Caused by that Christian Act — Death of Anne — Her Memory — The Royal Hunting Party — Henry Marries Jane Seymour — Effect of Anne’s Death on the Continent — What Share had Rome in it?


Catholicism versus Protestantism Summer, 1536

Position of the Two Parties — The Pope Desires to Unite with England — Two Men in Henry VIII — Pole Determines to write to the King — Priests are Fathers, Kings are Sons — Henry Rules like the Turk — Pole Has Orders to Curse Henry — Sentiments of the King — Mary Pays Dear for her Reconciliation with the King — Ratification of Parliament — Order to Renounce the Pope — Language of the Worldings and the Christians — Convocation of the Clergy — Latimer’s Reforming Sermon — Necessity of the Reformation — The Lay Element Reappears — The Clergy Denounce Sixty-SevenMala Dogmata — The Prolocutor’s Charge before the Bishops — The Two Armies Front to Front — A Scotsman in the Convocation — What Cranmer Thought Essential — Fox Extols the Reformation — The Word of God the Source of Life — Alesius Is Excluded — Necessity of a Convocation


Henry Enforces “Catholicism minus the Pope” Autumn, 1536

Henry Plays the Part of a Pope — Dogmas of the New Head of the Church — Articles about Religion — Baptism, Presence, Penance, Images, Prayers to Saints, Ceremonies, Purgatory — Different Opinions — The Articles Accepted — Cranmer’s Precautions to Prevent Mischief — Cromwell Vicegerent — Coverdale’s Bible — Evangelical Reaction — Various Testimonies — Persecutions — The Foundations of Faith


The Pilgrimage of Grace October, 1536

Agitation in the Northern Counties — Ferment throughout the Country — Revolt in Lincolnshire — Twenty Thousand Insurgents — The King’s Threats — The Pilgrimage of Grace — Sermon of Latimer — Aske’s Address — The Nobility — The Earl of Northumberland — Henry’s Alarm — Panic in London — Brutality of the Rebels — The Lancaster Herald before the Rebel Chiefs — The Insurgent Army Marches on London — The Royal Proclamation — Propositions of the Rebels — They Disperse — Subsequent Revolts and Repressions


The Martyrdom of Tyndale 1535 to October, 1536

Tyndale’s Characteristic — Imprisonment at Vilvorde — His Labors — Rogers Comes to his Help — Tyndale’s Legacy — The Bible About to Appear — A Light that Shines before Men — Intercession with the King on Behalf of Tyndale — Activity of Poyntz to save him — Poyntz Attacked by Philips — Tyndale’s Firmness — All Things Combine against Tyndale — His Great Offense — Tyndale’s Words — Tyndale Degraded — Led to Punishment — He Dies Praying for the King — Petition for the Circulation of the Whole Bible — The King Consents — Consequences of the Act — How the Bible was Received — Inward Power of Scripture


Reformation, Reaction, Relief


Three Parties Divide England 1536–1540

Birth of Edward VI — Death of the Queen — A New Wife Sought by the King — Relations of Henry VIII with the Swiss — English Students in Switzerland — A Letter to Calvin — Works of Swiss Theologians — The King’s Opinions on these Works — Reginald Pole — Made Cardinal — Legate beyond the Alps — Anger of Henry VIII — Pole in France and Belgium — Failure of his Mission — His Return to Rome — German Divines in England — Protracted Discussions — Ill Will of Some of the Bishops — Fruitless Attempts at Conciliation — Departure of the German Doctors — Melanchthon’s Letter to Henry VIII


An “Appeal to Caesar” and its Outcome 1538

Gardiner — His Return to England — Instigation to Persecution — Sampson, Bishop of Chichester — A Conspiracy against the Reformation — A Return to Old Usages — The Minister John Lambert — His Treatise on the Lord’s Supper — His Appeal to the King — Appearance before the King — Examination — His Confession of Evangelical Doctrine — His Resolute Declaration on the Sacrament — Cranmer’s Answer — The King’s Anger — Lambert Condemned to Be Burnt — His Execution — Flatteries Addressed to the King


The “Whip of Six Strings” 1538–1540

Negotiations for the King’s Marriage — Their Failure — Printing of the Bible at Paris — The Printing Stopped — Completion of the Work in London — Divisions — Attempted Compromise — Its Failure — The King’s Fears — The Six Articles — Cranmer’s Opposition — Latimer’s Resignation of his See — The King’s Advances to Cranmer, Cromwell, and Norfolk — Cranmer’s Time-Serving — Five Hundred Sent to Prison — Feeling in Germany — The Articles Condemned at Wittenberg and Geneva — Melanchthon’s Letter to the King of England — The King Appeased — Puerile Games


A Bitter Cup for Henry VIII 1539–1540

Anne of Cleves — Praises Uttered of Her — Her Simple Character — Her Arrival in England — The King’s Disappointment — His Desire to Get Rid of Her — His Fear to Break Off the Engagement — The Marriage Celebrated at Greenwich — Henry’s Complaint to Charles V — Ill Will of Charles — The King’s Distrust — Preaching of the Gospel Ordered by Cromwell — Gardiner’s Sermon — Barnes’s Sermon — His Boldness — His Imprisonment — Numerous Editions of the Bible


The Disgrace and Death of Thomas Cromwell 1540

Cromwell Threatened — Loaded with Honors by the King — The King’s Intention — The King’s Letter to Cromwell — Arrest of Cromwell — Foolish Charges — The Real Motive of the Blow — Cromwell Abandoned by All his Friends — Defended by Cranmer Alone — Cranmer’s Letter to the King — The Bill of Attainder — Heresy — The Accuser — No Trial — The Examination — The Bill Carried in Both Houses — Condemnation — Cromwell’s Letter to the King — The King’s Hesitation — Catherine Howard — The Queen Sent Away — Cromwell on the Scaffold — His Profession of Faith — His Confession and Prayer — His Death — His Character


The Divorce of Anne of Cleves 1540

Singular Impartiality — A Procession of Martyrs, Three Evangelists, Three Papists — Preparations for Divorce of the Queen — A Shameful Comedy — The King’s Hypocrisy — Convocation of the Clergy — The Marriage Declared Void — The Divorce Accepted by Anne of Cleves


Catherine Howard, the Fifth Queen 1540

Marriage of the King with Catherine Howard — His Return to Catholicism — Royal Infallibility — Catholic Reaction — Bonner, Bishop of London — A Young Martyr — The Prisons Filled — The King Praised by Francis I — Martyrdom of a Reader of the Bible — Conspiracy against Cranmer — The Archbishop’s Firmness — Charges against Him — Cranmer before the Privy-Council — The King’s Ring — Cranmer’s Enemies Confounded — The King’s Love for the Queen — Terrible Revelations — Guilt of the Queen — Cranmer’s Visit to her — Frenzy of the Queen — Cranmer’s Emotion — Condemnations and Executions — The Queen Executed — Her Guilt undoubted — Convocation of the Clergy — A Sharp Blow Struck at Convocation by Cranmer — Remarkable Progress of the Reformation


Cranmer Pursues his Task 1542

Richard Hilles, a London Merchant — His Studies and Readings — Cranmer’s Cautious Promotion of the Reformation — Amendment in Doctrine — Catherine Parr — Her Character — Another Plot against Cranmer — His Forgiveness of his Enemies — Several Martyrs — Marbeck’s English Concordance — Henry’s Complaints against France — His Alliance with Charles V — War with France — Sympathies of the Italians — Persecutors Punished


The Last Martyrs of Henry’s Reign 1545

Session of Parliament — The King’s Speech — The Rod and the Royal Schoolmaster — Anne Askew — Her Trial — Examinations — Her Release — Again Imprisoned — Her Steadfastness — Her Discretion — In Prison — Condemned to be Burnt — A Royal Proclamation — Anne Askew Tortured by the Lord Chancellor — Led to Execution — Death of the Martyrs — Approaching Triumph of their Doctrines


Death Casts its Shadow over Catherine Parr 1546

The Queen’s Piety — Her Rash Zeal — Conversations with the King — The King Offended — Conspiracy of the Catholic Leaders — The King’s Distrust — A Prosecution Ordered — The Bill of Indictment — The Queen Unsuspecting — The Indictment in her Hands — Her Distress — Her Interview with the King — Her Declaration — Rescue — Astonishment of her Enemies — Her Forgiveness of Them


The Last Days of Henry VIII 1546 to January, 1547

Disgrace of Gardiner — Two Parties at the Court — The Howard’s and the Seymour’s — Ambition of the Howard’s — Proceedings against Norfolk and Surrey — The King’s Impatience — Searches — A Divided House — Execution of Surrey — Humble Appeal of Norfolk — Inflexibility of the King — Last Hours of the King — His Death — His Will — Henry VIII to Be condemned as a Man, a King, and a Christian

The End of Volume Two