The Life and Times of John Huss

By Ezra H. Gillett

Table of Contents Volume I

Chapter I

Bohemia at the Close of the Fourteenth Century ~ Predecessors of Huss 1347-1394

Condition of Bohemia — National Feeling — The Introduction of the Usages of the Roman Church — The Waldenses — Predecessors of Huss — Conrad Waldhauser — Milicz of Kremsier — Matthias of Janow — Peter of Dresden — Flourishing Condition of Bohemia — Thomas of Stitny — Death of Anne of Luxembourg, Queen of England

Chapter II

Youth of Huss ~ University Life ~ Wickliffe 1373-1398

Birth and Education of Huss — his Parentage — Death of his Father — Studies at Prachatitz — Goes to the University of Prague — Accompanied by his Mother — his Poverty — State of the University — Founded by Charles IV — Modeled after the University of Paris — Seasonably Founded — Thronged with Students — Its Teachers — Favor Shown to Learning by the Emperor Charles IV — Progress of Huss — his Acquaintance with Jacobel — Acquaintance with Jerome — Martyrology the Favorite Reading of Huss — Affected by the Vices of the Age — Approves the Sentiments of Wickliffe on Christian Reform — Wickliffe — Supported by the Duke of Lancaster — his Career — Occasion of his First Work — It Expresses the Tone of his Life — The Mendicant Orders Attacked by Wickliffe — his Translation of the Bible — his Writings — his Opinions — Their Puritanic Cast — Their Prevalence and Spread — Vainly Condemned at London

Chapter III

Progress of the New Doctrines at Prague 1399-1407

Wickliffe’s Doctrines Disseminated at Prague — Character and Course of Jerome — Wickliffe’s Books Circulated — They are Condemned by the University — Part Taken by Huss — his Position and Influence — Hesitation in Receiving the Doctrines of Wickliffe — Bethlehem Chapel Founded — Huss Appointed Preacher — The Two Englishmen — Their Pictured Sermon — Patriotic Feeling of the Bohemians in the University — Their Opposition to the Claims and Privileges of the Germans — Huss and Wickliffe — Luther’s Language in Regard to Huss — Corruption of the Church — General Testimony — Progress of Huss in Approving Wickliffe — Others Unite with Him — Temptation Resisted — The Miracle at Wilsnack — Huss Exposes It — The Papacy during the Fourteenth Century — Origin of the Schism — Archbishop Sbynco — He Adheres to Gregory XII

Chapter IV

The Council of Pisa 1407-1409

State of Europe — Anarchy and Violence — Ecclesiastical Abuses — Efforts for Union — Ambition and Craft of Benedict — France Withdraws her Allegiance — Proposed Conference of the Popes — Gregory’s Protestation — Benedict’s Strategy — Gregory’s Cardinals Dissatisfied — They Desert Him — Their Appeal — Circumstances of Benedict — Royal Letter — Cardinals of Gregory and Benedict Unite — Gregory Summoned by his Cardinals to Lucca — Council Summoned — Regarded with General Favor — Views Prevalent in Bohemia — The King’s Decision — Opposition of the University — Influences Arrayed against the Council — Benedict and his Adherents — Benedict Appoints a Council — Gregory Does the Same — The Three Parties — The Council in Germany — Terrible Conflict at Liege — General Alarm — Benedict’s Council — Its Futile Issue — Council of Pisa — Position of the City — Members in Attendance — Opening of the Council — Objections in the Council to its Proceedings — Gerson’s Vindication — Ambassadors of Robert — Ladislaus — Sentence Against the Anti-Popes — The Conclave — Alexander V Elected — His Life and Character — Coronation — Close of the Council of Pisa — Gregory’s Council at Friuli — Danger of his Arrest — His Chamberlain Seized — Gregory Escapes — Alexander’s Election Favorably Received — Bohemia — Disappointment in the Results of the Council — Views of Clemengis — Of Boniface of Ferrara — Lack of General Enthusiasm — Theodore De Vrie — Relative Authority of Popes and Councils — Peter D’ailly — Alexander V and the Mendicants — Their Privileges and Arrogance — Spread and Power of the Order — Difficulties at Paris — Gerson’s Sermon on the Subject — Unpopularity of Alexander — Position of Sbynco at Prague

Chapter V

Huss and the Archbishop 1409-1411

Martial Operations of Sbynco — His Synod — Pater Arraigned — Bohemians on Wickliffe — Priest Abraham — Sbynco Satisfied — Wenzel’s Decision in Regard to the University — The Foreign Nations Refuse to Obey — Command of the King — The Secession of the Nations — Huss Chosen Rector — Character and Life of Wenzel — Sbynco — Transubstantiation to be Preached — Huss in his Pulpit — Substance of his Preaching — Ordinance Aimed at Huss — Sbynco Forced to Be Reconciled with Alexander V — Huss Circulates Wickliffe’s Writings — Broda’s Letter of Complaint to the Archbishop — Measures Taken — The University — The Five Students — The Archbishop Condemned by a Papal Commission — Submits to Alexander V — the Papal Bull — Its Reception — Opposition to It — Course of Huss — His Appeal — The Burning of the Books — Public Indignation — Knowledge of the Scriptures — Sermon of Huss — Continues to Preach — Wickliffe Defended — Sermon of Huss

Chapter VI

Huss Excommunicated ~ The Compromise 1411

Case of Huss at Home — Cardinal Colonna — His Decision — Its Reception at Prague — Royal Embassy to the Pope, Praying that Huss May Be Released From Personal Appearance at Rome — Procurators of Huss — Their Treatment — Sentence of Excommunication — Published at Prague — Huss Justifies Himself in Preaching — Interdict — The King Interposes — A Commission — Compromise — Letter of Sbynco — Its Futility — Sbynco’s Conference With Huss — Huss Preaches on the Subject — Disgrace of Sbynco — He Leaves Prague — His Letter to the King — His Death

Chapter VII

Huss and the Papal Policy September, 1411 – January, 1412

Archbishop Albic — His Infamous Character — Crusade Against Ladislaus, a New Firebrand — New Position of Huss — Cannot Depend on Wenzel for Support — His Decision — Ladislaus and Alexander V — Succession of Balthasar Cossa to the Pontificate — His Education — His Infamous Life — Excommunicated by Gregory — Promotes the Council of Pisa in Revenge — Rules the Council — His Notorious Character — His Coronation — His Proceedings — General Acquiescence in the Decisions of the Council of Pisa — Death of the Emperor Robert — Plans of John XXIII — Seeks the Alliance with Sigismund — Crusade Proclaimed Against Ladislaus — Huss Opposes It — Condition of Ladislaus — His Attack on Rome — Crusade Published

Chapter VIII

Bull for the Crusade at Prague January, 1412 – July, 1412

The Constancy of Huss Tried — His Procurators — His Petition for Release from the Summons to Appear in Person at Home — the Crusade — Controversy with John Stokes — Affairs at Prague — Disputation at the University—Dean of Passau and Bulls of Indulgences — Decision of the Theological Faculty — Huss’ View of the Crusade — Wenzel Tolerates the Proclamation — Preaching of Huss — Meeting Before the Council — Admonition of the Archbishop — Notice of the Proposed Dispute Affixed to the Doors of the Churches — The Discussion — Jerome’s speech — Second Meeting of the University — Indulgences Derided: A Practical Joke — Interruption in the Churches — The Offenders before the Council — Huss Intercedes for Them — Reply — Popular Commotion — The Execution — The Funeral — Depression of Huss — He Is Enjoined Silence — A Trying Period — Anxieties of Huss — Change in the Views of the King — Reasons of It — Sigismund’s Position — His Aspirations for the Imperial Crown — His Election — Anecdote — His Character — His Aims — Wenzel’s Exclusion from the Imperial Throne — Other Reasons for his Change of Policy

Chapter IX

Second Excommunication of Huss ~ He Withdraws from Prague July, 1412 – May, 1413

Excommunication of Huss — How He Was to Be Dealt With — Bethlehem Chapel to Be Torn Down — The Attempt Defeated — The City Council Divided — The Interdict — Its Legitimate Effect — Wenzel’s Decree Requiring Divine Service to Be Performed as Usual — The Division in the University — Theological Faculty — The Eight Doctors — Huss Still Preaches — Letter From England — Reply to Huss — He Leaves Prague — His Appeal to Jesus Christ — Substance of his Complaints — Martin V and the Council of Constance — Gerson on Appeal from the Pope — Huss Preaches in the Cities and Villages in the Open Air — His Vindication — An Interruption — Letter to the Cardinals — Reasons for Leaving Prague — Busy with His Pen

Chapter X

Huss in Retirement May, 1413 – September, 1414

Foreign Prejudice against Huss — Council of Rome — Incident of the Owl — Complaints against the Archbishop — Futility of the Measures Against Huss — His Work on the Church — Question in Regard to the Validity of the Excommunication of Huss — Jessenitz — The Royal Court of France — Views of Gerson — Views of D’ailly — Appeal to Scripture — Disturbances — Derisive Songs — Contemptuous Treatment of the Monks — The Friar and his Relics — Jerome and the Papal Indulgences — The Provocation Given — Three Antagonists of Huss — Broda — Stephen of Dola — His Work against Wickliffe — Its Covert Attack on Huss — Letter of Huss — Treatise of Stephen, or, “Anti-Huss” — His Motives — Conrad and the University of Paris — “Counsel” of the Latter — Synod of Prague — Counter-“Counsel” of Huss — “Counsel” of the Doctors — The Theological Faculty — Conrad Consults The Bishop of Leitomischel — His Answer — Futility of the Synod’s Action — Wenzel and his Measures of Reform — Their Effect Upon the Enemies of Huss — His Absence From Prague — His Language on the Humiliation of his Enemies — The Cause of Reform Advances — “The Missionaries” of Huss — Demand in Bohemia for a General Council — Other Reasons for It — The Schism — Doubts of D’ailly — Their Solution by Gerson — Corruption of the Church — Hungary and the Turks — The Terror Inspired by Them — A Council Summoned

Chapter XI

Sermons, Doctrines, and Letters of Huss 1404 – 1414

Gerson’s Letter — Sermons of Hubs — A Lull of the Storm — Confidence of Huss — His Influence — His Activity During this Period — His Writing — Reply to the Eight Doctors — Other Writings of Huss — Their Evangelical Character — Authority of Scripture with Huss — The Secret of His Strength — Letters During his Absence from Prague — His Indecision about his Return — Letters of Sympathy from England — Period of Trial

Chapter XII

The Council September, 1414 – November, 1414

Assembling of the Council of Constance — Selection of the Place — Its Situation — Its Present Condition — Memorials of the Council — The Summons of the Emperor and Pope Calling It — Death of Ladislaus — Reluctance of the Pope to Go to Constance — The Emperor Yields to the Demands of the Pope — The Pope on his Journey — The Princes — Sigismund and his Position in Regard to the Council — Huss at Prague — Prepares to Leave — Vindication of his Innocence — Challenges Accusation — Parting of Huss and Jerome — Emperor’s Letter — Huss’ Protectors — Farewell Letter — Forebodings of Huss — His Firmness — Letter to Martin — The Martyr Spirit — The Journey — Kindly Receptions of Huss — Letter From Nuremburg — Reaches Constance — Scenes in and without the City — Their Contrast with Christian Simplicity — Learning Represented at the Council — Poggio — Niem — Æneas Sylvius — Zabarella — Manuel Chrysoloras — Gerson — D’ailly — The Universities — Humble Position of Huss amid these Scenes

Chapter XIII

Arrest and Imprisonment of Huss November 3, 1414 – December 6, 1414

John XXIII Informed of the Arrival of Huss — Sentence of Excommunication Suspended — Huss Prepares Two Discourses — The Substance of Them — He Is Not Allowed to Preach — Proceeding of his Enemies — Michael De Causis — The Other Conspirators — Their Influence with the Cardinals — Arts Employed to Keep the People Away from Huss — John XXIII Favored by the Absence of the Emperor — Announcement Made November 1, 1414 — Arrangements — November 8, 1414 — Thanksgiving for the Recovery of Some — Intrigues — Doings of the Congregation of November 12, 1414 — Session of November 16 — The Pope’s Sermon — Bull Read by Cardinal Zabarella — Canon of the Council of Toledo — Officers Appointed — Opportune Use of the Heresy of Huss — Insignia of Benedict and Gregory Torn Down — Huss Cited to Appear before the Cardinals — Reply of Huss — His Compliance — Cardinal D’ailly — The Conference — Incident of the Minorite Friar, Didacus — Afternoon Conference — Articles of Accusation — Other Charges of Causis — Huss Kept under Arrest — Indignation of Chlum — Complains to the Pope — The Latter Appoints a Judicial Commission — Huss Imprisoned — His Sickness — Chlum Visits the Cardinals — Their Indifference — Vain Appeal to the People — Determination to Apply to the Emperor — Arrival of Latzembock — Despatch to Bohemia — The Safe-Conduct — Chlum Exhibits It — Placards Posted — Correspondence of the Emperor and Pope — The Mask Torn Off — Mandate of Sigismund — Huss Denied an Advocate — His Other Grievances — The Commission to Examine his Writings — The Imperial Mandate Disobeyed — Motives of the Pope

Chapter XIV

Anxieties of the Pope ~ The English and French Deputations December 7, 1414 – December 18, 1414

Troublesome Questions — Membership of the Council — Voting by Nations — Plan of Union — The French Deputation — Views of Gerson — Views of D’ailly — Views of Cardinal St. Mark — They Prevail — The English Deputation — Persecution of the Lollards — Richard of London — Thomas Netter — Spirit of the English Nation — Robert Hallam — Ullerston — His Writings — Doctor Paul — John Dorre — Walter Dysse — His Poem — The Deputation Anti-Wickliffe

Chapter XV

Proceedings of the Council ~ Huss Abandoned by the Emperor December 25, 1414 – February 7, 1415

Approach of the Emperor to Constance — Mass on his Arrival — The Ceremonial — Character of the Council — Sigismund’s Influence — A Field for Intrigue — The Emperor’s Ruling Purpose — Dark Prospect of Huss — Chlum Sees the Emperor — Cold Reception — His Letter to John of Lomnitz — Indignation of the Bohemians — Their Letters to Sigismund — The Emperor Ill at Ease — His Letter — The Casuistry of the Fathers — Sigismund Acquiesces in It — Sermon of Cardinal D’ailly — His Remarks on the Duties of the Pope and Emperor — the Hearing of Them on the Case of Huss — Chlum’s Remonstrance — A General Congregation — Sermons Preached — Bold Reproofs — Sermon of Matthew Roeder — The New Year — Emperor Consults with the Cardinals — Their Demand in Regard to Huss — Safe Conducts Given — The Ambassadors of Gregory — Opposition of John XXIII — Prejudice against Him — Conciliatory Measures Toward Gregory and Benedict — Cardinal D’ailly on the Infallibility of Councils — Legates of Benedict — Legates of Gregory — Proposal of John XXIII — The Way of Cession — Answer of John XXIII — Results of his Opposition — Extreme Measures Proposed— These Discovered by the Spies of John XXIII — Canonization of St. Bridget — Carried without Opposition — Gerson Writes his Tract on Trying the Spirits — Bold Suggestions of the Cardinal of St. Mark — Ability and Character of the Document Drawn Up — Rage of John XXIII — Replies of his Partisans — Questions Contained in the First — Refutation of the Cardinal St. Mare in the Third — Cardinal D’ailly’s Refutation — Conflict of the Monarchical and Republican Principles in the Church

Chapter XVI

The Council up to the Time of the Flight of the Pope January 8, 1415 – March 21, 1415

Membership in the Council — Views of the Cardinals St. Mark and Cambray — Voting by Nations — Reasons for It — Interposition of the Emperor in its Favor — The Order of Business Adopted — Proposed Charges Against the Private Life of John XXIII — He Discovers Them — His Alarm — Consults with his Cardinals — The Charges Prudently Reserved — Method of Cession Adopted by the Nations — The Form — The Cession Provisional — More Definite Form Demanded — Evasion of John XXIII — Third Form Demanded — The Pope Resolves on Flight — His Difficulty in Attempting It — Parisian Deputation — John XXIII Feigns Assent to the Demands of the Council — New Form of Cession Presented — He Accepts It — The Form — His Hypocrisy — Positions Taken by the Germans — The Second Public Session of the Council — Ceremonial of Abdication — Huss Removed to Another Prison — Congregation at the Franciscan Monastery — The Policy of the Pope Opposed to That of the Emperor — The Bull Extorted From the Pope — Its Evasive Character — Further Demand of the Pope — He Resists It — Gift of the Golden Rose — Strange Proposal to Elect a New Pope — John XXIII Indignant — Devises Means of Flight — Cardinal St. Angelo Arrested — The Pope Complains — The Emperor Vindicates Himself — The Pope’s Promise — Dissent of the French Nation — Indignation Against the Emperor — Demand Carried to Have John XXIII Appoint Attorneys — His Measures for Flight — His Evasive Answer — Complains of the Air of Constance — Suggestions of the Bishop of Salisbury — Flight of the Pope

Chapter XVII

Supremacy of the Council ~ The Pope Suspended ~ Treatment of Huss ~ Arrest of Jerome March 22, 1415 – May 24, 1415

Consternation at the Pope’s Flight — Steps Taken by the Emperor and Council — Duke of Austria — Gerson’s Discourse — The Pope’s Letters — His Apology — Vain Attempt to Dissolve the Council — Fourth Session — Decrees Read — An Omission — Dissatisfaction — Protest of the Pope — He Goes to Laufenburg — A New Seal — Fifth Session — Decrees of the Former Session Restored — Wickliffe’s Books to be examined — Measures for Bringing back the Pope — The Duke of Austria Cited — His Disasters — John XXIII at Freiburg — Letter to the Council — Wickliffe’s Doctrines Condemned — Controversy Occasioned by the form of Sentence — Cardinal of Cambray and Patriarch of Antioch — Demands made of John XXIII — Commission — Proposal to Exclude the Cardinals — The Pope at Breisach — Misfortunes of the Duke of Austria — Inclined to Submit — His Advice to the Pope — Fruitless Conference — Council Irritated — Citation of John XXIII — Of Jerome — The Duke of Austria Reconciled to the Emperor — The Archbishop of Metz — The Pope Deserted — Commission to Take Testimony — Force to be Employed — Evasion — Tenth Session — Suspension of the Pope — Heresy — Huss Neglected — Bohemians and Sigismund — Prison Interview — Huss at Gottlieben — Jerome at Constance — His Flight — Demands a Safe Conduct — Reply — His Citation — Leaves for Prague — Arrest at Hirschau — Taken to Constance — Charges Made — Gerson — A Doctor of Cologne — A Doctor of Heidelburg — The Bishop of Saltzburg — Confusion — Peter the Notary Finds Jerome — Vitus — Jerome’s Cruel Imprisonment

Chapter XVIII

The Communion of the Cup ~ The Bohemians at Constance May 14, 1415 – May 18, 1415

Communion of the Cup — Matthias of Janow — Origin of the Restoration of the Cup — Jacobel and Peter of Dresden — Theses Discussed Before the University — Prevailing Opinion in Favor of the Cup — Jacobel Defends It — Reply to Him — Broda’s Treatise — Jacobel’s Refutation — His Constant Reference to Scripture Authority — His Reprehension of Appeal to the Secular Arm — His Eloquent Conclusion — Huss Consulted — He Sustains Jacobel — The University Vindicated by Jacobel — Alarm at Constance — John the Iron, of Leitomischel — His Election as Bishop — An Enemy of Huss — The Bohemians Indignant — The Bishop’s Written Reply — Answer to This and “The Apology for the Council,” by the Bohemians — The Safe-Conduct of the Emperor — Evidence of John De Chlum — Case of Huss — Falsehoods Circulated in Respect to his Course in Regard to the Citation From Rome — Claim that his Safe-Conduct Should Regarded and He Be Freely Heard

Chapter XIX

The Pope Deposed May 19, 1415 – May 31, 1415

The Deposition of John XXIII a Necessity — The Emperor’s Resolve — The Contumacy of the Pope Declared — Exception of Cardinal St. Mark — Sitting of the Commission for Procuring Testimony — The Witnesses — List of Accusations — Suppressed Articles — The Fifty-Four Others — The Eleventh Session — Report Approved — The Result Communicated to the Pope — His Reception of It — His Reply — Information Sent to Him of his Proposed Deposition — His Affected Submission — His Letter to the Emperor — Inconsistency of the Pope — Frederic Gives the Pope Up — He Is Left Guarded at Ratolfcell — Abjectness of John XXIII in Prison — Eleventh Session — Report from the Pope to the Council — The Sentence of Deposition Read — Unanimously Assented To — The Cardinal of Florence Put Down — The Sentence Carried into Execution — Precautions in Regard to a New Election — The Pope Informed of his Deposition by the Council

Chapter XX

Huss at Gottlieben ~ Prison Examination May 31, 1415 – June 1, 1415

Condition of Huss at Gottlieben — His Remarks on the Deposition of John XXIII — On the Profligacy of the Council — Views of Clemengis — Of Niem — Huss Cites the Proceedings of his Enemies in his own Justification — His Cheerful Courage — Strength of his Faith — His Love of Truth — His Humility — New List of Accusations — Charged with the Heresy of the Cup — Petition of Huss’ Friends — His Protestation — Falsehood of the Charges — Demand That Huss Should Be Set Free or Heard — Sigismund Engages to Secure for Huss a Public Audience—The Answer of the Council — Advice of Chlum — Confidence of Huss — His Main Anxiety — His Visions — Anxiety Of Chlum — Bitter Malice of Paletz and Causis — John XXIII Removed to Gottlieben — False Honor Done Him — Strange Juxtaposition by the Side of Huss — Contrast of the Two Men — Lament of the Pope — Just Retribution — Removal of the Pope — Huss on the Cup — The Friends of Huss Present their Document to the Council — False Report — Prison Examination — Anxiety of Huss’ Friends — His Constancy and Answer — Account of the Examination — What Was Meant by Submission — Explained Bt his Protestation — Gerson and D’ailly — Their Agreement with Huss on Many Points — Their Nomination — Scholastic Antagonisms — Huss Less Trammeled by Such Prejudices

Chapter XXI

First Audience of Huss Before the Council ~ Second Audience June 1, 1415 – June 7, 1415

Removal of Huss to Constance — Council Assembled to Consider his Case in his Absence — Peter, the Notary — The Emperor Informed — Forbids Any Hasty Decision by the Council — Their Reluctance to Obey — Books of Huss Sent to the Emperor — First Appearance of Huss Before the Council — Charges Read — Confusion in the Council — Huss Cannot Be Heard — Luther’s Description — Calmness of Huss — Cardinal of Ostia — Complaint of Huss — Required to Recant — Confusion Such that the Council Adjourns — Assembly of June 7 — Eclipse — Sigismund Present — His Weakness — Articles Read — The Cup — Transubstantiation — The Cardinal D’ailly — Philosophical Subtleties — Nominalists and Realists — Reply of Huss — The English Doctors — Huss Dissents from Wickliffe — John Stokes — Remarks of the Cardinal of Florence — Noble Reply — Zabarella Rejoins — New Article on Approval Wickliffe — Whether Tithes Are Alms — Statements of Russ as to his Course — Sbynco — The Burning of the Books — The Appeal of Huss — He Justifies It — Article on Appeal to Arms — On the Discord Produced by His Doctrines — Statements of Huss — Nason — D’ailly — The University — Nason’s Remarks — Paletz Confirms Them — Council Adjourned — Huss Called Back — D’ailly Seeks to Prejudice the Emperor — Huss Replies — Chlum’s Answer — D’ailly Urges Submission — Sigismund on his Safe-Conduct — Bids Huss Submit — His Reply — Clemency of the Council — Letters of Huss — Anxiety about his Debts — Few Friends of Huss in the Council

Chapter XXII

Third Audience of Huss before the Council ~ Articles of Accusation June 8, 1415

Third Audience of Huss — Thirty-Nine Articles — How Drawn Up — Language in Regard to his Recanting — Charged with Writing Falsehoods to Bohemia — The Book “On the Church” — Predestination — No Outward Badge or Office Makes a Man a Member of the Church — The Reprobate Never a Member of the Church of Christ — Judas Never a True Disciple — The Church Composed of the Predestinate Alone — Peter Never the Head of the Church Catholic — The Pope Christ’s or Antichrist’s Vicar, According to his Life — Simonists and Wicked Priests Err as to the Sacraments — Papal Dignity an Imperial Gift — No One Without Revelation Can Say He Is Head of any Particular Church — No Pope, Unless Predestinated, the Head of any Church — The Pope’s Power Null if his Life Is Vile — His Holiness and his Revenues — The Cardinals no Successors of the Apostles Except by Holiness — Heretics not to Be Given Up to the Secular Arm — The Civil Authority — Should Constrain the Priesthood to Do Their Duty — Ecclesiastical Not Scriptural Obedience — Appeal to Christ Against Excommunication — Cardinal D’ailly — Evil Men Do Evil Deeds — Questions and Replies — the Priests Bound to Preach — Cardinal of Florence — Excommunication No Excuse for Silence — Ecclesiastical Censures Are of Antichrist — Interdict Not to Be Imposed

Chapter XXIII

Third Audience Continued June 8, 1415

Seven Articles from the Treatise of Huss Against Paletz — A Pope or Prelate in Deadly Sin is ipso facto, No Pope or Prelate — Embarrassing Subject for The Council — The Grace of Predestination Unites the Church and Each of its Members to its Head — A Wicked Pope a Son of Perdition — A Wicked Pope or Prelate Is No Pastor, but a Thief and a Robber — Objections — The Pope Not “Most Holy” — A Pope Legitimately Elected, if of Evil Life, Enters Not by the Door — Paletz’s Remarks — Reply of Huss — The Condemnation of the Forty-Five Articles of Wickliffe Unjust — Six Articles From the Treatise Against Stanislaus — A Majority of Electoral Votes Cannot Make a Man Christ’s Vicar — A Reprobate Pope Is Not the Head of the Church — Christ Sufficient to Rule His Church — Remarks of Huss Upon It — Peter Was Not Universal Pastor — The Apostles Ruled the Church Without a Pope — Remark of an Englishman — How to Deal with Huss — Conclusions — Cardinal D’ailly Addresses Huss — Some Reluctant to Doom Huss to the Flames — He Is Urged to Submit — The English Deputation — Gerson — Huss States his Purpose and Desire — Cardinal D’ailly Perverts Its Meaning and Demands Submission — Reply of Huss — Pleads Conscience — The Emperor’s Advice — Terms of Submission — Reply of Huss — Demand Repeated — The Priest in Silk Cassock — Reply of Huss — Paletz — The Other Works of Huss — His Conscientiousness — Insists on a Further Hearing — Slanderous Interpretation of a Sentence of The Pope — Exhaustion of Huss — False Charge in Regard to the Three Men Beheaded at Prague — Paletz — Paletz and Nason on the Inflammatory Sermons of Huss — The Oxford Letter — Pause in the Proceedings — Protestation of Paletz — Of Causis — Of Huss — Remark Of Cardinal D’ailly — Disposition of Paletz — The Council Adjourns — Chlum Cheers Huss — Conclusions and Policy of the Emperor